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Full text of "What Is a Sewing Machine?"

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SDO 



AMERIGAN AliT JOUJ^NAL. 



WHAT IS A SERVING MACHINE? 



It is a machine for making clothing and doing 
Sewing of all kinds* 

Does it make the same kind oi a stich that a 
laoy makes with her needle ? 
No; it makes other kinds. 

What are they called ? 

"Lockstitch,^' "Chain Stitch," and "Double 
Chain Stitch." 

T^Tiat is the difference ? 

Hero IS a picture of the Lock Stitch, as the 
thread looks when stitched into the cloth, only 
this is made larger and coarser that you may see 
it hotter. 



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No. 1.— Lock Stitch. 

It is made with two threads, one on each aide 
Of the cloth) and ''locked" together in the cen* 
tre. Hence It is called the "Lockstitch." It 
cannot be pulled out, nor raveled, and there is 
only a single line of thread on each side of the 
seam. 

ts the seam strong and firm ? "^ 

Yes; just as lirm as the cloth when "Tproperly 

inade. It is the principal stit'ch ftiad^ fey-sewing 

machines suice their first inveiitionv 

How much thread does it take f jr a yard oi 
seam ? 
About two yards and one halK 

What is the principal machine that makes the 
Lock Stitxjh ? 

THlfi WHEELlilR & WILSON MACHINE. 

What is the ' ' Chain Stitch I " 

Here is a picture ol it 




^^^ 



^" 



No. 2.— Chain-Stitch. 

It is such a stitch as the ladies make In knit* 
tmg and crocheting, and it can bo raveled in the, 
same way. • ^- ' * 

Is it much used in Sewing? ' • 

No ; because the seams made with it pull out 

so easily. Think of garments coming apart 

when one is in the street 

How much thread does it take for a yard of 
«eaGi? 



About four and a half yards; or nearly twice as 
much as the * ' Lock-Stitch. " 

What is the principal machine making this 
stitch? 

The Wilcox & Gibbs. 

What is the " Double Chatn-stitch t" 

It is very much like the Single Chain Stitch, 
but is made'with two threads. 

•Here is a picture of it.. 




No. 3.— Double Chain Stitch. 

Can it be raveled ? 

Yes; and shows a ridge on one side. 

What makes that ridge on the under side of the 
seam ? 

It is the looping and knotting of the two 
threads used. 

Does that do any harm ? 

Yes; it weai'S off when garments are washed 
and ironed. It does not look well unless as em- 
broidery, No one would like a handkerchief 
hemmed with it, or -any seam made that shows. 
A handsome stitch, you kndw, only shows a sin- 
gle line of thread. 

How muck thread does it take Ibr a yard of 
^eanit' '\'^""" 

About six and one half (6^) .yards. The most 
of any machine. 

What machine makes this sLitch ? 

The Grover «fc Baker. 

Who use Sewing Machines ? 

The Wheeler & Wilson are used by Seam- 
stresses, Dress Makers, Tailors, Manufacturers of 
Shirts, Collars, Skirts, Cloaks, Mantillas, Cloth- 
ing, Hats, Caps, Corsets, Ladies' Boots and 
Shoes, Linen goods. Umbrellas, Parasols, etc. 
They work equally well upon silk, linen, woolen 
and cotton goods, with silk, cotton or linen 
thread. They will seam, quilt, gather, hem, fell, 
cord, braid, bind, and perform every species of 
sewing, making a beautiful and perfect stitch, 
alike on both sides of the article sewed. 

How many Wheeler & Wilson machines have 
been sold? 
Nearly 300,000. : --• 

How fast can the machine work ? 
The Wheeler & Wilson Company has pre- 
pared tables showing, by actual experiments of 
four different workers, the time required. to stitch 
each part ot a garment by hand, and with the 
Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine. Subjoined 
is a summary of several of the tables:— 



BY MACHINE. Bt SANDj 

Hours. Minutos. Hours. Minutes. 

Geatlemen's Shirts 1" 16 U 26 

TVOck Coots. ........2 88 16 35 

Satin Vests 1 14 7 10 

linen Vests .....0 48 5 14 

Cloth Pants 61 6 10 

Summer Pants..... 88 2 60 

SilkDress... i. 1 13 8 27 

Merino Dress .1 4 8 27 

Calico Dross. » 57 6 37 

Chemise.. ...1 i 10 31 

MorednSkirt .......0 Sl> 7 28 

Muslin Sldrt SO;* 7 1 

Drawers............. 28 "4 6 

Nijyht Dress.. 1, 7 io 2 

Silk Apron...... ..0 16 4 16 

Plain Apron.... »0 9 1 26 

NUMBER OF STITCHES MADE PER MINUTE. 

By Hand. With Machine. Ratio. 

Stitching fine Linen 23 640 28 

Stitching Satin. ...24 520 22 

Stttching Silk ........ .30 650 18 

Seaming fine Cloth 18 504 16 

Patent Leather, fine Stitching, 7 176 25 

Pitting Ladies' Gaiters , . 28 610 18 

Stitching Shoe Vamps ........ 10 210 21 

Binding Hats>.......k 33 374 11 

WBen the machines are driven by power, this 
ratio is much higher— 1,600 and 2,000 stitches 
per minute not being an unusual average. 

Think how much time is saved by usijig the 
machines. 

MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS. 

The proportion of thread used m making the 
various stitches is as follows? 

"Lock Stitch, 'U; "Chain Stitch,'M 8-lOths; 
" Double Chain Stilch," 2 5-lOths. 

Prob. 1. If a "Lock Stitch" machine-useslO 
cents worth of thread and silk in a day, how 
much would it use in a year of 300 working days? 
Answer, $30. 

Prob 2. How much wculd a " Chain Stitch " 
machine use in doing the same amount of sewing. 
Ans., $54: worth. 

Prob. 3. How much would a "Double Chain 
Stitch " machine use in doing the same amount 
of sewing? Ans., $75 worth. 

Prob. d. There will be ultimately at least a mil- 
lion of sewing machines used in the country ; at 
the^abovo rate, what value of thread and silk 
would be used annually if all of one kind were 
used? Ans. "Lock Stitch," $30,000,000; 
"Chain Stitch," $54,000,000; "Double Chain 
Stitch," $T5,000,000. 

Prob. 5. What value of thread would be wasted 
by the "Chain Stitch?" Ans. $24,000,000. 

Prob. 6. What value would be wasted by the 
"Double Chain Stitch?" Ans. $45,000,000. 

Prob. 7. If there be 6,000,000 families in the 
United States, how much would it cost to send 
each a weekly newspaper at $1,50. Ans, 9,000^^ 
000..:. . ^^'^ ^ 

Prob. 8. How much to send a monthly Maga- 
zine at $2.00 Ans. $12,000,000. 

Prob. 9. How much would remain of the 
$45,000,000 of waste, for. Missionary, Educa- 
tional and Charitable purposes. Ans. 24, 000, 000. 

Is it wicked to waste things. Yes. 

Then what sewing machine should be used ? 
Ans. " Wheeler & Wilson's Lock Stitch Sew- 
ing Machine."'